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Alto Trombone History Timeline - Will Kimball. A history of the alto trombone in timeline form. For sources see Alto Trombone History Bibliography.
A note on sources: In historical research, primary sources are gold. Because they bring readers closer to actual documented facts rather than individual interpretations and opinions. The timeline below draws from more than 1. In addition, the timeline utilizes numerous current secondary sources, including Early Music, Historic Brass Society Journal, Galpin Society Journal, and a number of recently- published books. According to other scholars, it is more likely, based on performer nationalities and manufacturing locations, that the trombone originates in Germany (Herbert, Susato 1.
Polk, Archival Documents). Although the sculpture is badly damaged, a full trombone is visible in the hands of one of the brass players, and the embouchure and grip of another player are clearly visible. Noteworthy aspects of the rendering include the non- underhand left- hand grip of the 2 players, the relatively small size of the trombone (cf. The sculpture is now held in Florence. Given the early date, the image may simply represent an artist’s attempt at a trombone rather than a specific depiction of an alto trombone. The Duke orders, among other supplies, .
This instrument appears to be relaitvely small and is perhaps an. Look at the length of the trombone, for example, relative to the size of the heads nearby, or relative to the hand holding it. Notice, also, that the instrument appears to be supported easily with one hand. Colin Slim proposes the date 1. Based on the size of the trombone in front relative to the player, the instrument may be an alto trombone (see below image; public domain; click for larger version) (Kreitner, Minstrels in Spanish Churches). It is nearly impossible to tell, as artists are often less than literal, but the instrument could be an alto trombone.
Compare it proportionally, for example, with the other instruments nearby (see detail and full image below. The image is associated with a performance of. Stewart Carter, apparently reluctant to call it an alto trombone, says the following: “The trombone in this illustration. However, research has shown that 1) “very small” trombones existed within only a few years of this date (see, for example, 1.
Carter’s own book), 2) additional iconography from the time period also depicts relatively small trombones (see 1. Giorgio Vasari, is also relatively awkward, but, counter to Carter’s logic, the instrument is clearly not a prop (the man is actually playing the instrument in an ensemble); see this blog post to view the painting. After the visit, he recommends, through a letter, that the Kassel court purchase a large number of instruments.
Included among the recommended instruments are the following trombones: “In Nuremberg, two Tromboni piccolo and one grosso. One trombone is pictured in the immediate foreground, while another, possibly an alto trombone, is shown very near the music desk. The text at the bottom of the engraving reads, “The people refine the heavenly worship with melodious arts and adorn the sacred rites with song.
A Biography of the Beast 666 & Much More This really is a comprehensive, albeit condensed biography of Aleister Crowley (already in excess of 50,000 words), and well worth reading even if you have already read his own autohagiography (which, incidentally, ended. The next word to appear in the 15th century that implied a slide was the sackbut group of words. There are two theories for the sources: it is either derived from the Middle French sacquer (to pull) and bouter (to push) or from the Spanish sacar (to draw or pull) and bucha. A pioneer of performance as a visual art form, Abramovi. Ai Weiwei was born in Beijing, China in 1957. An outspoken human rights activist, Ai.
The horns fill the holiest portion of the temple with many sweet tones; the fistula . Trombones are particularly prominent in the underworld scenes (Daubeny 9. An ensemble of trombones and cornettos plays in acts III and IV. The wedding party is apparently wealthy and the musicians are elegantly dressed. The painting is set against the backdrop of the Hanseatic town of Bremen (Salmen, Status). The first is in the context of the cornett and violin choir: “But if another C- 3 clef is used besides the one for the basset and other clefs noted above, it is better to use a sackbut together with the cornetts (if an alto sackbut player who plays really well is available), and a.
A history of the alto trombone in timeline form. For sources see Alto Trombone History Bibliography. A note on sources: In historical research, primary sources are gold. Because they bring readers closer to actual documented facts rather than individual.
Later he mentions alto trombone in the context of choirs of trombones and curtals, naming it. If the first part is intended to be played a fourth or fifth lower as an alto, that part must be played either on an alto sackbut or treble . He also points out that alto trombone is referred to as. The trombones pictured include alt or discant posaun (comparable to modern alto), gemeine posaun (comparable to modern tenor), quart- or quint- posaun (bass trombones, fourth. See below image (Praetorius II, plate 8; public domain. The chamber includes, among other instruments, “An octave trombone, which they consider a rarity; a quint- terce- tenor trombone; some small discant trombones” (Moser 1. The “discant trombones” mentioned could be alto trombones; 9 years earlier, Praetorius, another German, refers to alto trombone as “discant” trombone (see 1.
In addition, Hainhofer describes a specific court player of what is probably an alto trombone: “There were also Elias P. The latter embellishes on the little trombone whatever he hears played for him on cornets and fiddles” (Moser 1. Amintore Galli, professor at the Milan Conservatory, later describes “trombone contralto” as an E- flat instrument (see 1.
And in the illustrations. The instrument is held in Marienkirche, Gdansk (Herbert, Trombone 3. Although it is impossible determine with certainty, the instrument may be an alto trombone, given its size relative to the surrounding instruments. Judging by the size of the objects around it (lute, violin, music book, text book), the instrument appears to be of alto trombone size. There is some extra tubing on the back bow of the instrument (see detail and full image below; public domain) (Galleria Estense, Modena).
Although it is impossible determine with certainty, the instrument may be an alto trombone, given its size relative to the surrounding instruments and music pages (see detail and full image below; public domain) (Mola 1. The instrument is held in Marienkirche, Gdansk (Herbert, Trombone 3. Pitched in E- flat, it is labeled . Less ornate than many older trombones, the instrument may mark the beginning of a trend of Nuremberg manufacturers toward more utilitarian appearance of instruments.
The instrument is held at Horniman Museum in London (Carse, Collection 6. Gregory 3. 5, 5. 2). The collection contains several works for the following instrumentation: soprano voice, alto trombone, tenor trombone, 2 trumpets (or cornettinos or violins), violone or trombone, and continuo (Collver 1. His description and position charts show four diatonically- numbered positions for each member of the trombone family and indicate that, at this time, tenor trombone is probably pitched in A, alto in D, and bass in D (see facing image for Speer’s alto and bass diagrams; public domain).
The author provides, along with his trombone description, two 3- part sonatas for trombones (see facing image for first page of first sonata; public domain) (Speer Vierfaches 1. In a separate section of the treatise, Speer discusses how to organize music performances in a small town, saying, . There is another one, a little larger, which is called TROMBONE MAGGIORE or MAJORE which can serve as the tenor; its part is entitled TROMBONE SECONDO, IIo, or 2o. There is a third, even larger, which the Italians call TROMBONE GROSSO and the Germans GROSSE QUART- POSAUNE which can supplement our viola or oboe; its part is entitled TROMBONE TERZO, IIIo, or 3o.
Finally, there is one which is the largest of all, one which the Italians call TROMBONE GRANDE and which is heard a great deal especially playing the bass; its part is entitled TROMBONE QUARTO, IVo, or simply TROMBONE without other addition. It is usually given the fourth- line F- clef, but also very often the fifth- line F- clef because of the depth and profundity of its notes. The “trombone piccolo” or “kleine alt- posaune” that Brossard describes is an alto trombone.
There are large and small trombones, namely: small alto, large alto, tenor or large quart, and bass trombone, which can form a full choir by themselves, but are used very rarely, except in church pieces and solemn music. It includes 7 different sonatas scored for 4 trombones (alto, 2 tenors, bass) and 2 cornetts (Collver 5. In the second edition, edited by Johann Mattheson and published in 1. Mattheson appends the following: . An autograph remark at the head of the score indicates, . Katharina in Schwabisch Hall, Germany, discusses the trombone family in his treatise, Museum musicum. He shows and describes a tenor in A and alto and “quint” trombones in D (see below 2 images; public domain) (Majer 4.
Heavily influenced by Walther’s Musikalisches Lexikon, it mentions that alto, tenor, and bass trombone parts can all be played on tenor trombone. However, it also discusses the pitch and positions of the true alto and bass trombones, clearly instruments considered to be in the key of D: “Alto and bass trombone have the same three positions, with d, a, d’, f’, a’, and d” in first position; c, g, c’, e’, g’, c” in second; and f and b in third” (Guion 3. As anticipated, they also have three positions, which are done in one and the same way as the first ones described. The first position, or to speak more clearly of it, if the trombone is not extended at all, the range has D, A, D, F#, A, D, and in the alto clefs or notes after each other are D, A, D, F#, A, C, D” (Guion, Trombone 4. Eisel 7. 2). Nothing more than this, that the alto trombone has the alto clef as prescribed in the parts, where as the quint and quart trombones generally have the bass clef as prescribed in the parts. Whoever understands then that which was stated before will also be able to find their way easily in this. The requiem requires a solo alto trombone with solo alto voice in the .
They commission Johann G. The requiem requires a solo alto trombone with solo alto voice in the . The 4 trombones played. Bach and successor to Bach at Leipzig, writes 2. Carter, Trombone Ensembles of the Moravian). The requiem requires a solo alto trombone with solo alto voice in the .
The full title for the trombone movement is Larghetto a Trombone Concerto (Guion, Trombone 1.